Cell Parts Function Information

Although it is widely known that the cell is the basic building block of life, many people are unaware of the specif cell parts functions that are needed for an organism to maintain life. Cells are both complex and simple structures at the same time, incorporating and using an organism’s genetic code to effectively continue survival. The individual parts of a cell are a good place to start learning about how an organism functions and the differences between the various types of cells.

While a human body can contain many trillions of cells, some organisms are able to survive with only one cell. A common example of this type of organism is bacteria. Their cell structure differs remarkably from a human cell, but the goal of preserving life is still the same. A bacterial cell is surrounded by a cell membrane that allows interaction with other cells that it has contact with. Inside the walls of the cell membrane, the bacterial cell consists primarily of cytoplasm, a mixture of water and enzymes. Like humans, cells in a bacteria are mainly water, with only 30% of both containing other materials. In addition to the enzymes found in the cytoplasm, there are other molecules as well. Amino acids, ATP, and glucose are present to assist in the general functioning of the cell. At the center of the cytoplasm is where the bacteria’s DNA is kept. The DNA is present in string form and appears similar to a messy ball of string. Some bacterial cells also have flagella, which are located on the outside of the cell membrane and are used to help the bacteria move. The parts of the cell in bacteria are similar to those in humans.

The parts of a cell in a human are decidedly more complex. One major difference is in the DNA. While a bacteria has its DNA located in the cytoplasm, a human’s DNA is located in chromosomes which are a cell part that is found in the nucleus. The nucleus is generally located in the center of a human cell, away from the edges where harmful contact can occur. The nucleus functions as a cell’s brain and sends messages to the other components within the cell using mRNA. In addition, the nucleus and interior nucleolus are where DNA is created and formed into the common double helix strands. Within the cytoplasm of a human cell, all necessary work is completed by the cell’s enzymes. These enzymes are created from amino acids and each enzyme serves a very distinct purpose. One example is the enzyme maltase. Its only function is to break down the sugar maltose within a cell, but this process is necessary to provide energy to the other functions of the cell. There are an almost limitless number of enzymes that can be found in a cell. In more complex organisms, the cell parts functions will increase, thus necessitating increased numbers and types of enzymes as well.

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    May 2015
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